πŸ†•How Building data is created

Note

This content supplements the content on the OS NGD Building feature page.

Building feature definition

A new building geometry which represents a single building footprint. This geometry consists of adjoining building parts which have been determined to be part of the same building. When contained in a Land Use Site, adjoining building parts are represented by a single feature.

Separate, non-adjoining building parts within a Land Use Site are also represented as NGD Building features.

Building feature attribution

Basement Presence

For the initial capture of Basement Presence attributes, OS has used data captured and supplied by Verisk. This data will be maintained by data updates from Verisk and supplemented by OS Surveyed data.

Values for this attribute are: Present, Not present, Unknown, Null. As only buildings that contain at least one address are within scope, Null is used for buildings that are out of scope like garages or sheds.

Basement Presence Self Contained

Sourced from OS Address attribution.

Values for this attribute are: Present, Not present, Unknown, Null. As only buildings that contain at least one address are within scope, Null is used for buildings that are out of scope like garages or sheds.

Building Age Period

For the initial capture of Building Age Period, OS has used data captured and supplied by Verisk. This data will be maintained by data updates from Verisk and supplemented by OS Surveyed data.

The Building Age Period ranges vary for earlier periods and move to consistent decadal ranges from 1980 onwards. Earlier than 1919, it difficult to identify commercial buildings so there is a catch-all range of pre-1919 as well as more defined ranges going back to 1837 covering only residential buildings.

The Building Age Period can be Unknown where OS does not know the building age and Null if the building is out of scope, that is, does not have at least one address (for example, domestic outbuildings like sheds and separate garages).

Building Age Year

For the initial capture of Building Age year, OS has used data captured and supplied by Verisk. This data will be maintained by data updates from Verisk and supplemented by OS Surveyed data.

If a Building Part has an address and a Building Age, and is part of a larger Building feature with other Building Parts that do not have an address, the resulting Building feature will inherit the Building Age Period of the single addressed part of the Building. This can create anomalies in the data. Where a Building has multiple Building Ages from different Building Parts, the oldest date is used.

The Building Age Year can be Unknown where OS does not know the building age and Null if the building is out of scope, that is, does not have at least one address (for example, domestic outbuildings like sheds and separate garages).

Construction Material

For the initial capture of Construction Material, OS has used data captured and supplied by Verisk and OS. OS data identifies Static Caravans and Mobile Homes. This data will be maintained by data updates from Verisk and supplemented by OS Surveyed data.

The primary material can be the internal or structural material, or the externally visible material and the Constructionmaterial_thirdpartyprovenance attribute can help determine this. Typically, data sourced from EPC will show the internal or structural value.

Where multiple Building Parts make up a single Building, the Construction Material will be derived from the Building Part with the largest area.

The Construction Material can be Unknown where OS does not know the material and Null if the building is out of scope, that is, does not have at least one address (for example, domestic outbuildings like sheds and separate garages).

Description

Created using OS Address and OS Land Use Sites data.

Third Party Provenance

The following information defines the third party provenance attribute values and how they are created.

Verisk data is sourced from multiple third party data sources and / or created using algorithms. The Verisk data provenance can be identified using the following attributes:

This additional attribution will help users determine the value and suitability of this data to meet specific use cases.

Verisk UKBuildings data

This is not a named third party provenance value, however, the process used to create Building Age Period, Construction Material and Basement Presence data is partly dependent on the process used to create Verisk UKBuildings data.

Much of the data supplied by Verisk is based on initial capture and classification of building characteristics from vertical and oblique aerial imagery. Trained observers outlined defined areas, encompassing buildings with similar age, use and physical characteristics, using a detailed residential and non-residential classification. This classification provides the basis for many of the age values and with age being a key determinant of Basement Presence and Construction Materials, this is a key foundation of this data.

Within the Verisk UKBuildings data, Construction Material was observed for non-residential buildings (in urban areas) and was modelled based on Verisk premise age and type for residential buildings. So, for example, all low Victorian Terrace buildings would have brick walls and slate roof materials. Modern detached houses would have brick walls and tile roof.

Address Analysis

Address Analysis is an umbrella term describing construction dates derived from investigation of historic address data and modern Postal Address data (post 1996).

  • Changes in modern Postal Addresses data used to infer when buildings were built. For example, if an address first appears in 2008, it could be assumed that the building relating to that address was built in that year.

  • Historic address data from Historic Maps and Census data, can indicate that a specific building existed when the data was collected (assuming the building hasn’t been demolished and rebuilt with the same name). For example, if a building called β€œThe Old Mill” is present on a historic map from 1895 and present in modern address data, it can be assumed that the building Construction Date is earlier than 1895.

Domestic Energy Performance Certificates

Building Age Period

Age bands given in EPC relate to changes in building regulations impacting heating and energy efficiency and are therefore do not necessarily align to the Building Age Period attribute values.

A building may have more than one EPC or may be given more than one age in a single EPC which can sometimes lead to inconsistencies. For example, it is common to find buildings in a single housing estate that may not be assigned the same single Building Age.

Construction Material

EPC is the primary source of data for this attribute and is extracted from the Walls Description field. This is often the internal walls which can lead to a difference in what values are represented across the data. This will be a mix of internal/structural and external construction material.

Basement Presence

The Floor Level characteristic of Domestic EPCs, provides confirmation that an address is at basement level, for single storey flats or maisonettes.

Historic England, Historic Environment Scotland and Cadw (Listed Buildings)

Open data sources that can contain multiple references to age which can lead to challenges deciding which age to extract.

HM Land Registry Price Paid

The sale prices of properties in England and Wales submitted to HMLR for registration.

Infill Modelling

Verisk have used advanced analytics and data modelling to derive building information where no definitive or observed data can be identified.

Building Age

Some building characteristics used in this process include -

  • Known age characteristics of nearby buildings.

  • Building size, shape, orientation, and distance from road. For example: modern buildings are smaller and parallel to roads.

  • Address and Postcode characteristics.

  • Local area statistics, such as Census.

Construction Material

  • Age and other characteristics of the building - Uses the concept of architypes to describe standard characteristics of properties of similar age and residential type. Such architypes provide default construction characteristics if other information is not available.

  • Known characteristics of nearby buildings. For example, buildings along a terrace are likely to have the same construction material.

  • Local area statistics (ONS).

Basement Presence

  • Age and other characteristics of the building - Basements are most commonly found in older buildings, and modern high-rise buildings.

  • Known characteristics of nearby buildings. For example, if a building along a terrace or road has a basement it is possible that other buildings on the same terrace or road will also have a basement.

  • Building size, shape, orientation, distance from road and slope.

  • Local area statistics (ONS).

  • HM Land Registry

Local Authority Planning and Building Control Data

Analysis of Local Authority planning and building control data to identify buildings with a basement.

Basements were also identified from planning applications.

Other sources

  • Valuation Office Agency (Fair Rent Register)

  • Non-Domestic EPC (England and Wales & Scotland)

  • Cabinet Office (ePIMS)

Remote Sensed Manual Imagery Interpretation

Data derived from Verisk UKBuildings data and this manual observation process.

Valuation Office Agency Open Data

Two open data Valuation Office datasets (Fair Rent Register and 2018 Non-domestic rating data) were used to identify buildings with basements.

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